Results: Optimum Configurations for 3D Printing
The summary of optimal settings obtained in the case of Experiment1 and Experiment2 can be found in Table 2 and Table 3 respectively. It shows the most ideal and least ideal configurations to use when it comes to choosing between the factors. It also shows which factors, or the factorial interactions contribute to the printed object in a statistically significant manner. This indicates the user to keep an eye on them.
Infill (Factor B)  Most Ideal Configuration  Least Ideal Configuration  Statistically Significant Factors  
Low  High  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area 
Hollow  20%  Natural
20% None 
Natural
20% None 
Natural
20% Tapered 
Natural
Hollow Tapered 
C  No
Factors 
Hollow  80%  Natural
80% None 
Natural
80% None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Natural
80% Tapered 
C  B 
Hollow  Solid  Natural
Solid None 
Pink
Solid None 
Pink
Solid Tapered 
Natural
Solid Tapered 
No
Factors 
No
Factors 
20%  80%  Pink
80% None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Natural
80% Tapered 
A, C
A*C A*B*C 
A
A*B, A*C A*B*C 
20%  Solid  Natural
Solid None 
Pink
20% None 
Pink
20% Tapered 
Natural
Solid Tapered 
A, C
B*C 
B 
80%  Solid  Natural
80% None 
Natural
80% None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Pink
80% Tapered 
A, C  B, C
A*C 
Table 2 Summary of the results of the optimal configurations of Experiment1
Infill (Factor B) 
Most Ideal Configuration  Least Ideal Configuration 
Statistically Significant Factors 

Low  High  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area 
Hollow  20%  Natural
Hollow None 
Natural
20% None 
Natural
Hollow Tapered 
Blue
20% Tapered 
C
A*C 
B 
Hollow  80%  Natural
80% None 
Natural
80% None 
Natural
Hollow Tapered 
Natural
Hollow None 
C  B, C
B*C 
Hollow  Solid  Natural
Solid None 
Natural
Solid None 
Natural
Hollow Tapered 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
C
A*C 
A
A*B, B*C 
20%  80%  Natural
80% None 
Natural
80% None 
Natural
20% Tapered 
Blue
20% Tapered 
C
A*C A*B*C 
C
A*B 
20%  Solid  Natural
Solid None 
Natural
20% None 
Natural
20% Tapered 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
C
A*C 
A, B, C 
80%  Solid  Natural
80% None 
Natural
80% None 
Blue
80% Tapered 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
A, C
A*B, A*C A*B*C 
B, C
A*B 
Table 3 Summary of the results of the optimal configurations of Experiment2
When color pigments are added to natural PLA, some of its properties such as crystallinity is affected ^{[25]}, leading to variation in the way the material prints. Hence, a similar experiment was performed with two different pigmentations of PLA. Factor A’s levels were changed to pink and blue. However, other factors and the settings were kept the same. The expected values also remained the same. Table 4 shows the optimal configurations for the Experiment3.
Infill (Factor B) 
Most Ideal Configuration  Least Ideal Configuration 
Statistically Significant Factors 

Low  High  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area  Height  Base Area 
Hollow  20%  Blue
20% None 
Pink
20% None 
Blue
Hollow Tapered 
Blue
20% Tapered 
No Factors  No
Factors 
Hollow  80%  Blue
80% None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Blue
Hollow Tapered 
No Factors  B 
Hollow  Solid  Blue
Hollow None 
Pink
Solid None 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
No Factors  No
Factors 
20%  80%  Blue
80% None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Blue
20% Tapered 
A, C
A* C 
A, B, C
A* C 
20%  Solid  Blue
Solid None 
Pink
20% None 
Pink
20% Tapered 
Pink
Solid Tapered 
A, C
A* C 
A, B, C

80%  Solid  Blue
Solid None 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Pink
80% Tapered 
Blue
Solid Tapered 
A, B, C
A*C, B*C 
A, B, C
A*C A*B*C 
Table 4 Summary of the results of the optimal configurations of Experiment3
The data from Table 24 show that tapered objects should have a lower priority while 3D printing. The bigger the shape, the more accurate the overall geometry ^{[20]}, hence the cones can clearly be seen having the least ideal configuration in all cases, because the size of each successive layer reduces since they taper. Also, objects printed using natural PLA are consistently seen in the most ideal configuration columns in Table 23, making it preferable when compared to its colored counterparts. Choosing the settings available in Tables 24 could prove beneficial to reduce filament wastage while printing using PLA.
References
References can be found in the Introduction section.